A new study by researchers from Columbia University and Duke University shows that doing crossword puzzles has an advantage over computer video games for memory functioning inolder adults with mild cognitive impairment. These adults doing crossword puzzles showed less brain shrinkage and better daily functioning.
In a randomized, controlled trial, researchers determined that participants (average age 71) trained in doing web-based crossword puzzles demonstrated greater cognitive improvement than those who were trained on cognitive video games.
This was the first study to document both short-term and longer-term benefits for home-based crossword puzzles training compared to another intervention, according to the researchers.
Crossword puzzles are widely used but have not been studied systematically in mild cognitive impairment, which is associated with high risk for dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.
To conduct their study, researchers at Columbia and Duke randomly assigned 107 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the two different sites to either crossword puzzles training or cognitive games training with intensive training for 12 weeks followed by booster sessions up to 78 weeks. Both interventions were delivered via a computerized platform with weekly compliance monitoring.
Superior to Video Games
The most striking findings of the trial were:
- Crossword puzzles were superior to cognitive games on the primary cognitive outcome measure, ADAS-Cog, at both 12 weeks and 78 weeks. Crossword puzzles were superior on FAQ, a measure of daily functioning, at 78 weeks.
- Crossword puzzles were superior for participants at a later disease stage but both forms of training were equally effective in an earlier stage.
- Brain shrinkage (measured with MRI) was less for crossword puzzles at 78 weeks.
The study also highlights the importance of engagement. Based on remote electronic monitoring of computer use, participants at a later stage of impairment may have better engaged with the more familiar crossword puzzles than with computerized cognitive games.
Two strengths of the trial are the 28% participation rate of individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups and the low drop-out rate (15%) for such a lengthy home-based trial. A study limitation was the absence of a control group that did not receive cognitive training.
While these results are highly encouraging, the authors stress the need for replication in a larger controlled trial with an inactive control group.
This article is based on the press release by Columbia University. Content may be edited.